Psychological Development Questionnaire-1 (PDQ-1)
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Type of Measure: The Psychological Development Questionnaire-1 (PDQ-1) is a 10-item parent/caregiver-report questionnaire designed to detect children at-risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The PDQ-1 is intended to be a rapid screening instrument and can be used in a variety of settings. The items are designed to represent social interest, referencing, and communication in young children.
Target Population: Children aged 18-36 months
Measurement properties and previous use: A paper reporting an evaluation of the PDQ-1 described a multi-part study. In the first phase, the PDQ-1 scores were strongly associated with the Autism Behavior Checklist (-0.869; p<0.001) and PDQ-1 scores were consistent over a 7-day period (0.998). With a screen-positive score set to <=12, the PDQ-1 was 100% concordant with Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised ASD diagnoses.
In a low-risk sample of 2007 screened children, the positive predictive value of the PDQ-1 was 88% (22 of 25 children), compared to clinical evaluation and administration of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. However, 96% of these children showed >=1 SD expressive or language delays (measured on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning). 1959 of the 2007 children were followed to time 2 and, based on reported autism diagnoses, the PDQ-1 had a sensitivity of 85% (22 of 26). The calculated specificity and NPV were both 99.8%.
Languages: English and Spanish (as of January 2020)
Authors and Citation: Zahorodny, W., Shenouda, J., Mehta, U., Yee, E., Garcia, P., Rajan, M., & Goldfarb, M. (2018). Preliminary Evaluation of a Brief Autism Screener for Young Children. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP, 39(3), 183–191. doi:10.1097/DBP.0000000000000543
Copy of article is available on the PDQ-1 website.
Licence: [From the PDQ-1 instructions] The PDQ-1 may be used for clinical, research, and/or educational purposes. The PDQ-1 is a copyrighted instrument and use of this instrument is limited by the authors and copyright holders. The PDQ-1 is available through license or distribution agreement. Parties interested in using the PDQ-1 or in reproducing the PDQ-1 in print or electronically for use by others or to develop any commercial or electronic products or applications based on the PDQ-1 should contact Andrea Dick at andrea.dick@ rutgers.edu or 848-932-4018.
Link to measure: PDQ-1 website - English and Spanish versions immeidately available at top of page.
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